After completing your TEFL course, you are eager to work and experience first-hand how it is like to be a TEFL teacher in Spain. But, do you know how the Spanish education system works?
Having a broad idea of the education system in Spain will help future teachers better understand the context they are working in and to know their new host country better. So keep reading our post and discover how the Spanish education system works!
The education system in Spain has been subject to several changes in the past few years. The education regulating body in charge is the Spanish Ministry of Education, promoting and establishing education laws. Currently, the education system in Spain is regulated by the LOE (Organic Law on Education), which includes the changes introduced by the LOMCE (Organic Law for the Improvement of Educational Quality).
We can find public, private and state-subsidised private education in Spain. Public schools are managed and financed by public entities, whereas private schools are managed and funded by private entities. State-subsidised private schools are halfway between public and private education. Private entities manage them, but most of their funding comes from public entities and parents’ contributions. Public schools, following state regulation, are secular schools. Private schools may be secular or not, depending on the entity in charge of the school. In state-subsidised private schools, the types of schools vary, but most of them belong to the Catholic church.
It is also important to remember that Spain comprises 17 autonomous communities with competencies in education matters. This means that each community may develop and implement their basic education legislation involving certain curricular elements, subjects, co-official languages, school hours (within limits established under national legislation), etc. However, the educational centres in the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla are directly managed by the Ministry of Education.
The public education system offers Infant Education, Primary Education, Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO), Secondary Education, and Higher Education.
Infant school (Educación infantil)
Infant school covers education from zero to six years. It is not compulsory and comprises two stages: the first, from 0-3, and the second, from 3-6. It is free of charge in public schools and assisted private schools. Most children start their schooling at the second stage (3-6 years old). Infant school focuses on teaching children environmental, social and personal values and activities that develop their mental and physical abilities.
Primary education (Educación primaria) and Compulsory Secondary Education (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria)
Primary education and Compulsory Secondary Education are obligatory in Spain. Primary education covers 6-12 years old and Compulsory Secondary Education from 12-16 years old. It is free in public schools and state-assisted private schools. However, textbooks and materials are not free; the parents buy them.
During primary education, students learn the following subjects: Maths (Matemáticas), Conocimiento del Medio (general knowledge subject which includes biology, geography, history…), Spanish language (Lengua), Arts and crafts (plástica), Physical Education (Educación Física), and a second language, commonly English.
The core curriculum in compulsory secondary education is generally Maths, geography, history, physical education, Spanish language and literature, and a foreign language. Optional subjects include a second foreign language, technology, music, natural and social sciences, etc. In private schools and state-subsidised private schools, students may also study a subject called Religión (Catholic religion). In addition, students generally wear uniforms in private and state-subsidised private schools (colegios concertados).
Secondary education (Educación Secundaria) comprises Compulsory Secondary Education and Further Secondary Education, divided into Baccalaureate (2 years), Intermediate Professional Training in Fine Arts and Design, Intermediate Vocational Training and Intermediate Sports Training.
Higher education (Educación superior)
Higher education in Spain is comprised of University Education, Higher Level Vocational Training and Higher Arts Education.
One of the ways to access a University in Spain is by studying the two years of Baccalaureate (Bachillerato) and taking a general university entrance examination (called “Selectividad”). The final grade combines the results obtained during the exams and the general grades obtained during the Baccalaureate. Unfortunately, there aren’t many university grants in Spain; therefore, university studies are a significant financial investment.
How is the school calendar and timetable?
The school year in Spain starts in mid-September and ends by the third week of June. There is a break of two weeks during Christmas and about a week during Easter. Students also enjoy short breaks during national and regional holidays. There are two different timetables: one in which students have a divided day with a two-hour break for lunch, and they finish lessons in the early evening and the uninterrupted school day (adopted by many public schools) in which students do not take any break and leave school at around 3 pm.
Opportunities for English teachers in the Spanish educational system
English is taught as a curriculum subject in all compulsory education centres from 6. English is an optional subject in many nursery schools (3-6 years). In some regions, such as Madrid, bilingual schools have been established, in which pupils are taught other subjects in English.
Many English teachers in Spanish public schools do not have an official certificate for teaching English. English teachers can be more employable with a British Council accredited and recognised TEFL certificate such as the Trinity CertTESOL. Although the positions are indeed available through competitive examinations, there are many positions for substitute teachers. Private and state-subsidised centres (colegios concertados) can recruit without entrance examinations and typically require a high level of qualification from the teachers.
Adding these opportunities to many private English language schools in the country, any Trinity College CertTESOL qualified teacher can get a temporary or long-term job.